Vaccinations for Home, for Work, For Travel

Perth Travel Clinic

Office 8,
Friarton House, Friarton Road,
Perth, PH2 8BB

01738 258 158

07967 622 186

Fife Travel Clinic

John Smith Business Centre,
John Smith Business Park,
1 Begg Road,
Kirkcaldy. Fife. KY2 6HD

01592 362 133

07967 622 186

Vaccination Information

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Chicken Pox

Chicken pox is a highly contagious viral illness that causes fever and itchy, blistering spots. It is a common childhood illness, but can also affect adults. When contracted as an adult, particularly by pregnant women, it can be severe and serious complications can arise.

Prevention
Chicken pox is a vaccine preventable disease. This vaccine is a course of two injections which can be given from the age of 1 year.



Cholera

Cholera is an infectious bacterial disease that infects the small intestine, causing acute diarrhoea and vomiting. It can lead to dehydration and electrolyte imbalance and is often fatal. It is transmitted when food or water that has been contaminated is ingested.

Travel precautions
When you are travelling, check that bottled water is sealed before drinking. If you drink water from other sources, make sure it has been boiled or that it has been filtered or treated with sterilization tablets. Avoid ice unless you know that the water has been treated before freezing. Avoid eating uncooked food and make sure that hot food is freshly cooked and served hot. Only eat fruit that you can peel, and use common sense around personal hygiene and hand washing.

Prevention
Cholera is vaccine-preventable. The cholera vaccine is taken orally and provides 85-90% protection against cholera for a two year period. If you are travelling to high-risk areas, you may be recommended a course of two doses.



Diphtheria

Diphtheria is an infectious bacterial disease that can cause difficulties with breathing. If you are not vaccinated, severe infections can cause respiratory failure, heart failure or a build-up of toxins in the nervous system, and can be fatal. Diphtheria is usually transmitted through coughs and sneezes.

Travel precautions
Although diphtheria can affect people of all ages, the highest risk groups include children who have not been immunized and older adults who may not have been vaccinated as children. If you are travelling, especially in the colder months, and you have not been vaccinated you are at risk and should arrange to be vaccinated before you leave.

Prevention
Diphtheria is preventable disease and there is a simple diphtheria vaccine. People travelling to high risk areas may be recommended a single course vaccine.



Flu

The Flu vaccination is a seasonal vaccination that needs to be given each year to provide the best protection against that year’s viral mutations, in accordance with World Health Organisation recommendations. You cannot get flu from the flu vaccine although some people can experience a mild fever a few days after administration.

We offer a corporate flu service where we come to your place of work and immunise employees, thus reducing the risk of absence due to winter flu.

Travel precautions
A flu vaccination maybe recommended depending on your travel plans.

Prevention
Vaccination a single dose vaccine for adults. Doses for children may vary depending on age.



Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A is a viral infection that causes inflammation of the liver. It is transmitted when food or water that has been contaminated is ingested. The World Health Organisation estimates that there are 1.5 million new cases of illness due to hepatitis A each year worldwide.

Travel precautions
When you are travelling, check that bottled water is sealed before drinking. If you drink water from other sources, make sure it has been boiled or that it has been filtered or treated with sterilization tablets. Avoid ice unless you know that the water has been treated before freezing. Avoid eating uncooked food and make sure that hot food is freshly cooked and served hot. Only eat fruit that you can peel, and use common sense around personal hygiene and hand washing.

Prevention
Hepatitis A is a vaccine-preventable disease, requiring a single injection that will provide short-term protection for a single trip. Ideally you should be vaccinated at least two weeks before you travel. For longer term protection, a booster should be taken within 6-12 months of the first vaccine.



Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is a viral infection that can lead to severe liver problems. It is often fatal, and is 100 times more infectious that HIV. It is spread when an uninfected person is exposed to infected blood or bodily fluids.

Travel precautions
Vaccination may be advised depending on the nature of your trip.

Prevention
Prevention is a course of 3 vaccinations prior to travel. Schedules can vary depending on age.

Japanese Encephalitis

Japanese encephalitis is a viral infection that can cause swelling of the brain, resulting in permanent brain damage or death. It is spread by mosquitos, with around 50,000 people in Asia developing visible symptoms each year. Your risk is highest if you plan to visit agricultural areas or are considering outdoor activities, especially during the transmission season. You are also at greater risk if you plan to stay in high risk areas for longer that three to four weeks.

Travel precautions
Buy a good quality mosquito net, ideally one that has been impregnated with insecticide, before you leave and make sure you always use it. Try to wear clothing that covers as much skin as possible and apply insect repellent to exposed skin. Spraying clothes with insect repellent is also a good idea as mosquitoes can bite through thin fabric. Try to avoid exposure to insects between dusk and dawn, which is when mosquitoes are most active.

Prevention
Japanese encephalitis is a vaccine preventable disease. Vaccination involves a course of two vaccines, the second vaccine being administered 28 days after the initial injection.

There is now an accelerated schedule that can be used where time before travel is short.



Malaria

Malaria is a parasitic tropical disease, which can cause fever, headaches and in severe cases coma or death. It is spread by mosquitoes and there is a high risk of contracting malaria if you visit affected areas. Around 1,500 travellers return to the UK with malaria every year, with a handful of fatalities each year.

Travel precautions
Many cases of malaria can be prevented by the ABCD approach:

  • Awareness of risk: know what the risk of contracting malaria is before you travel
  • Bite prevention: take precautions to avoid bites as much as possible
  • Chemoprophylaxis: take the right antimalarial tablets and complete the course
  • Diagnosis: be aware of the symptoms and get immediate medical help if you develop any of them

Buy a good quality mosquito net, ideally one that has been impregnated with insecticide, before you leave and make sure you always use it. Try to wear clothing that covers as much skin as possible and apply insect repellent to exposed skin. Spraying clothes with insect repellent is also a good idea as mosquitoes can bite through thin fabric. Try to avoid exposure to insects between dusk and dawn, which is when mosquitoes are most active. You are equally at risk in urban environments as you are in rural areas.

Prevention
Being aware of your risk is a huge factor in protecting yourself from the disease, so be sure to speak to us when you are planning your trip. We can advise you on whether the areas you plan to visit have any risk of infection, and recommend antimalarial tablets that will prevent you from becoming infected.

There are a range of different antimalarial tablets that can be prescribed to travellers based on several factors, including your destination, medical history, family medical history, current medications, any previous problems with anti-malarial tablets, your age, and whether you are pregnant.



Meningitis ACWY

Meningitis ACWY is a serious bacterial infection that causes inflammation of the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, and can lead to blood poisoning. Meningitis can be fatal or cause permanent severe disability, particularly if blood poisoning occurs. Meningitis is spread through coughing and sneezing or through close contact with an infected person.

Prevention
Prevention of Meningitis ACWY is by single dose vaccination. Hajj and Umrah pilgrims must show a vaccination certificate when they arrive in Saudi Arabia. This certificate is provided after vaccination.



Meningitis B

Meningitis B is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in young children and adolescents with under 5’s being at the greatest risk. Meningitis B is a highly aggressive strain of bacterial meningitis which infects the protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It can be very serious and needs to be treated as a medical emergency. If left untreated it can cause severe brain damage and blood poisoning. In some cases it can be fatal. At present Meningitis B is responsible for around 80% of cases of meningococcal meningitis in the UK.

Prevention
A new vaccine for Meningitis B is now available. The Department of Health has recommended that the new vaccine be included in the routine infant injections at the age of 2 months. Children over this age will only be able to obtain the vaccine privately. The number of injections required varies depending on the age of the client, and we discuss dosage requirements with our specialist on a case by case basis.

The meningitis B vaccine can be administered at the same time as other vaccines. The main side effect is fever which can be treated with ibuprofen and/or paracetamol.



Polio

Polio (Poliomyelitis) is a potentially life-threatening, highly contagious, acute viral infection, which may cause permanent nerve damage, leading to paralysis of limbs and respiratory muscles. It is transmitted when food or water that has been contaminated is ingested. Vaccination has almost eradicated Polio over the last century, but it still poses a threat in certain areas, especially where sanitation is poor. Children are particularly susceptible to the disease.

Travel precautions
When you are travelling, check that bottled water is sealed before drinking. If you drink water from other sources, make sure it has been boiled or that it has been filtered or treated with sterilization tablets. Avoid ice unless you know that the water has been treated before freezing. Avoid eating uncooked food and make sure that hot food is freshly cooked and served hot. Only eat fruit that you can peel, and use common sense around personal hygiene and hand washing.

Prevention
There is no cure for Polio but it is vaccine preventable. In the UK the vaccination is part of the childhood immunisation schedule. If you were not vaccinated against polio as a child, vaccination may be recommended before you travel.



Rabies

Rabies is a fatal viral infection that causes acute inflammation of the spinal cord and brain. The virus is carried in the saliva of infected animals and is transmitted through bites, scratches, or even a lick onto broken skin. The main carriers of the virus are dogs, cats, primates and bats, but other animals can be infected too. Rabies cannot be treated, but can be prevented through vaccine.

Travel precautions
The best way to prevent infection is to avoid contact with animals in infected areas. All mammals are susceptible to the virus, so should be avoided.

Prevention
Vaccination against rabies is recommended if you are travelling to a high risk area, or if you are planning activities that put you at increased risk of exposure. You should also consider vaccination if you are visiting areas where there might be limited access to medical care should you be exposed.

You will need a course of three injections to be fully vaccinated against rabies. If you suspect that you may have been exposed to rabies while you are travelling you must seek urgent medical attention, even if you have been vaccinated.



Shingles

If you have had chickenpox, the virus can lie dormant in your nerve cells. Shingles is caused when the virus reactivates, resulting in a very painful rash usually on the face or torso. Once the rash has healed you can be left with persistent pain in the area, which can potentially last for months. Around one in five people who have had chickenpox go on to develop shingles, with the risk of developing the disease and the severity of the symptoms increasing with age.

Prevention
A single vaccination is now available, which lowers the risk of shingles developing and can also reduce the risk of pain from the rash should shingles occur. It can be given after an episode of shingles to reduce the risk of reoccurrence, but you should wait approximately 12 months after the symptoms subside before you get vaccinated.



Tetanus

Tetanus is a bacterial infection that causes severe muscle spasms and is often fatal. It is usually introduced into the body through a puncture wound or burn. It is estimated that there are a million cases of tetanus globally each year, with up to half resulting in death.

Travel precautions
Tetanus is the only vaccine-preventable disease that you cannot catch from another person. Use common sense when deciding on activities when you are travelling and do not take unnecessary risks that may result in wounds or burns. Tetanus infection is often associated with injuries from rusty nails, and while these may not result in infection, they do provide the perfect entry point for the bacterium. Make sure you get medical attention for any wounds or burns that you suffer when travelling; even minor wounds can introduce the bacterium.

Tetanus can also be contracted through intravenous drug use.

Prevention
A single injection of the vaccine provides immunity to the disease. In the UK, the tetanus vaccination is part of the childhood immunisation schedule. However you may require a booster depending on how long ago you were vaccinated.



Tick-Borne Encephalitis

Tick-borne encephalitis is a viral disease with flu like symptoms including fever, headaches, nausea, muscle pain and general discomfort. It is contracted through infected tick bites or less commonly by drinking unpasteurised milk as it can be passed on from infected cattle. This form of encephalitis is often linked with meningitis, as the virus can attack both the brain and the meninges.

Travel Precautions
Ticks live in long grass and in wooded areas, so activities that take you into these areas increase your risk of being bitten. If you are walking or camping, avoid walking through long grass and stay in the centre of trails to avoid brushing against bushes and trees. You can stop ticks getting on your skin by wearing long trousers with tight cuffs at the bottom or tucked into socks and long sleeved tops with tight cuffs. Insect repellent can also deter ticks from biting. Don’t drink unpasteurised milk in areas where the risk of infection is high.

Prevention
The risk of infection can be reduced by vaccination.



Tuberculosis (TB) - BCG vaccination

Tuberculosis is an infection which typically attacks the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body. It is spread through the air when people who have active TB cough, sneeze or otherwise transit respiratory fluids through the air. Once airborne it can survive for several hours. If left untreated it can be fatal.

Travel Precautions
Your risk of contracting TB while travelling depends on the types of activity that you plan to undertake. Travellers planning on volunteering or working in clinics, hospitals or homeless shelters where infection control measures are poor are at highest risk.

Prevention
The BCG vaccination is used against TB.
Over 6 year olds must have a mantoux test before the vaccine is administered. The Mantoux test involves an injection into the skin of the lower arm, which will show whether you have immunity to TB. If the test is negative a BCG vaccination will be required. A blood test can be offered to adults to check for TB sensitivity.
Children under the age of 6 do not need a Mantoux test and can simply receive the BCG vaccination.



Typhoid

Typhoid Fever is a bacterial infection that can cause intestinal bleeding, toxic heart disease, pneumonia, seizures and swelling of the brain. It is transmitted when food or water that has been contaminated is ingested. Between 13 million and 16 million cases of typhoid are reported globally each year, of which 500,000 result in death.

Travel Precautions
When you are travelling, check that bottled water is sealed before drinking. If you drink water from other sources, make sure it has been boiled or that it has been filtered or treated with sterilization tablets. Avoid ice unless you know that the water has been treated before freezing. Avoid eating uncooked food and make sure that hot food is freshly cooked and served hot. Only eat fruit that you can peel, and use common sense around personal hygiene and hand washing.

Prevention
Typhoid is a vaccine preventable disease. The vaccine is a single dose.



Yellow Fever

Yellow Fever is a serious and sometimes fatal viral disease that can cause jaundice, kidney failure, and bleeding from the eyes, nose, mouth and stomach. It is spread by mosquitoes in tropical parts of Africa, South America and the Caribbean, and is more common in the rainy season.

There are a number of factors that affect your risk, including your destination, the level of yellow fever transmission, the activities you have planned, the duration of your trip, and also your immunisation status.

Travel precautions
Buy a good quality mosquito net, ideally one that has been impregnated with insecticide, before you leave and make sure you always use it. Try to wear clothing that covers as much skin as possible and apply insect repellent to exposed skin. Spraying clothes with insect repellent is also a good idea as mosquitoes can bite through thin fabric. Try to avoid exposure to insects between dusk and dawn, which is when mosquitoes are most active. You are equally at risk in urban environments as you are in rural areas.

Prevention
Yellow Fever cannot be treated effectively, but is preventable by vaccination. Travellers to high risk areas require a single dose injection.